Are you interested in learning about the causes of revolutions in the world? Do you want to know why there are revolutions in some countries? In your opinion, what caused the Iranian revolution?
In this article, we want to explain Iran before and after the Islamic revolution, women’s rights in Iran before and after 1979, and why the Iranian revolution is essential so that you can know more about Iran.
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Iran in 1979 and the Iranian revolution
1979 was one of the most essential and unique years for government changes in the history of Iran.
This year, the conditions for the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran, were provided.
In 1979 people in Iran witnessed fundamental changes in the royal system. The Islamic Republic resulted from some political changes and the Iranian revolution.
In this way, clerics came to power as the head of the government in many government roles and could make decisions about government and government issues.
Iran before and after the Islamic revolution
This part of the article will provide information about Iran before and after the Islamic Revolution. The more information you have about the history before the Islamic Revolution, the better you can analyze Iran’s political and power currents and understand the factors that caused the revolution.
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Iran Before the Islamic Revolution
In 1953, a power struggle broke out between Mohammad Reza Shah and Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh. The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) organized a coup against Mossadegh’s government.
After the coup in Iran in 1953, Pahlavi aligned himself with the United States and the Western bloc, and in such a situation, he had more power to rule as an autocratic king. He always needed the support of the United States to maintain control for another 26 years. (Milani, 2012)
For this reason, the White Revolution happened in 1963, and Ayatollah Khomeini was arrested in 1964 and exiled.
His arrest and deportation to another country created suitable conditions for demonstrations and protests in 1978. Protesters set fire to the Rex Cinema, and this was considered one of the first essential measures of the Islamic Revolution.
Every day the protests became more and more until, in August and December of the same year, strikes and demonstrations in the country reached their maximum.
At that time, due to widespread protests on January 16, 1979, the Shah of Iran decided to leave Iran and go to another country as the last king of Iran.
For this reason, Shahpur Bakhtiar was responsible for the Shah’s duties. At the same time, Ayatollah Khomeini was invited to Iran by the government, and several thousand Iranians welcomed him when he returned to Tehran.
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The monarchy fell shortly after that, on February 11, when forces loyal to the king surrendered in armed street battles. Then Khomeini came to official power, and the people of Iran voted in favor of becoming the Islamic Republic in a national referendum held on April 1, 1358.
Little by little, in December 1979, the parliament drafted and approved the theocratic-republican constitution, by which Khomeini became the country’s leader.
Iran after the Islamic Revolution
On February 18, 40 days after the clashes in Qom, demonstrations began in other Iranian cities. One of the biggest demonstrations was in Tabriz. Protesters set fire to “Western” and government symbols such as cafes, cinemas, state banks, and police stations in other cities.
At that time, the Iranian Imperial Army units were stationed in the cities to establish order in society. Their goal was to reduce the intensity of protests. According to the government’s announcement, the number of people killed at that time was 6. Still, according to Khomeini’s announcement, hundreds of people were “martyred” in the events related to the protests.
Forty days later, on March 29, the demonstrations continued, and, as predicted, deadly riots broke out in major cities.
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Forty days later, on May 10, an incident happened, and army commandos fired at the house of Ayatollah Shariatmadari. Army commandos killed one of his students during this shooting.
women’s rights in Iran before and after 1979
After the resignation of Reza Shah in 1941, the order of government decreased. At that time, women could appear veiled in society if they wanted to. (Afkhami, 1994)
During these decades, women could enter the previously exclusively reserved fields for men and their activities and accept essential responsibilities in the parliament, cabinet, armed forces, legal professions, and science and technology fields.
Also, in 1963, women gained the right to vote. Between 1962 and 1978, the Iranian women’s movement achieved victories such as women’s suffrage. In 1963 during the White Revolution of Mohammad Reza Shah. (Sanasarian, 1982)
But it is interesting to know that many achievements were lost when the Iranian revolution came to power. The Islamic Revolution’s government destroyed many Iranian women’s rights. The rights they had earned with great effort in the decades leading up to the course. Privileges that were special for women disappeared.
In 1354, the parliament considered new rights for women through this law—for example, rights related to divorce and custody and reducing polygamy.
But women’s rights have been limited since the Islamic Revolution came to power. For example, in 1979, the Parliament of the Islamic Republic enacted several laws to impose the hijab and general covering for women.
It is interesting to know that in November 2016, only 6% of Iranian parliamentarians were women. At the same time, the global average number of female parliamentarians was about 23%.
What happened in the Islamic revolution of 1979?
The autocratic monarchy of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi faced a broad coalition of opposition forces. A general team of opposition forces included Marxists and constitutional liberals. Finally, the dominance of Shiite clerics affected the country’s opposition, and they could bring the Islamic Republic’s government to power.
Gradually, demonstrations and strikes peaked, and millions of people against the Shah’s regime created the Iranian revolution and blocked the streets of Iranian cities. The successive strike made many people unemployed and caused disruptions in the affairs of the state.
The existence of numerous disturbances provided the conditions for the Iranian revolution. Finally, the Islamic Republic was able to gain power.
Who overthrew the Shah of Iran in 1979?
Iranians wanted to end the repressive dictatorship of the Shah. At that time, the Shah was very dependent on Western governments. At that time, although national oil was booming, many Iranians were dissatisfied with the Shah’s rule because he was considered responsible for the unequal distribution of wealth in society.
At first, the protestors wanted to establish a constitutional monarchy because the constitution in the constitutional monarchy required the king to follow the laws of Islam and approve other laws of the country in the parliament. But in the end, the protestors wanted to overthrow the king and establish an Islamic and democratic republic.
The people wanted to overthrow the king because, in the Islamic Republic, they had promised to increase the workers’ benefits and wages.
The release of political prisoners, Iran’s economic independence from foreign countries, and the dissolution of the one-party system were among the people’s primary motivations for overthrowing the Shah’s government.
Why is the Iranian revolution important?
Why was the Iranian revolution necessary? In response to this question, we will state factors so that you can better understand the reasons for the Iranian revolution.
The Iranian Revolution made a lot of effort to oust Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. He has been the king of the country since 1941. But the kingdom was not an independent, influential king and a father of power. People knew that Western countries like the US and Britain supported him.
It is necessary to know and pay attention to the fact that during the reign of the Shah, Iran enjoyed economic prosperity.
Another factor that caused the dissatisfaction of Iranians and the Iranian revolution was the weakening of Shiite traditions and some social norms. So people thought that the king was trying to serve foreign countries.
Conclusion of Iranian Revolution
In this article, we explained the Iranian revolution. We explained the reasons for it and told how the people tried to overthrow the Shah’s government. We also explained women’s rights in the period before and after the Islamic Revolution. We hope that reading this article was helpful for you. Please read the other articles we have written about different societies and the formation of civilizations and share them with your friends.